Izazovi održivosti u ovome radu sagledani su u prostorno drugačijoj perspektivi od klasične urbano-ruralne, kao dio šireg prostornog konteksta urbanog područja, konkretno, urbane aglomeracije Zagreb. Takav pristup omogućio je širi uvid u odnose ekonomskih, ekoloških, kulturnih i političkih aspekata urbane održivosti zagrebačke regije bez da se izgubi izravna veza teorijskog pristupa fenomenu održivosti i same prakse tipa razvoja koji se drži razvoja održivih parametara i koncepata. Analizom društvenih učinaka tvornice u lokalnoj zajednici što je predmet ovog rada, na istraživanom se primjeru konstatira da je učinak tvornice element pozitivne promjene ali i razvojni potencijal koji može imati održivo i društveno odgovorno poslovanje za razvoj mjesta ali i šireg područja. Temeljni je cilj ovog doktorskog rada istražiti na koje je sve načine pojedinačni razvojni subjekt, konkretno, tvornica za proizvodnju valovitog papira u Zaboku, utjecao na društveno-gospodarski razvoj grada Zaboka u određenom vremenskom razdoblju te do kakvih je promjena u mikrosredini, tj. Zaboku, došlo zbog postojanja navedene tvornice. Izgradnja i početak funkcioniranja tvornice 2003. godine polazna je točka ove analize utvrđivanja pozitivnih i negativnih promjena na različite aspekte razvoja mjesta Zabok i njegovu okolicu tijekom godina rada tvornice. U tu svrhu, korištena je dostupna statistička i druga relevantna pisana dokumentacija te je provedeno kvalitativno empirijsko istraživanje stavova različitih sudionika (stakeholdera) metodom dubinskog, odnosno polustrukturiranog intervjua (stanovnika Zaboka, predstavnika Uprave tvornice, predstavnika Grada te predstavnika udruge za zaštitu okoliša). Rezultati istraživanja pokazali su načine na koje tvornica u svom redovitom poslovanju primjenjuje načela tzv. održivog razvoja. Budući da je djelatnost promatrane tvornice usmjerena na proizvodnju upotrebnih dobara s različitim utjecajima na neposredan i širi okoliš, u ovom je radu najveći naglasak stavljen upravo na okolišnu komponentnu održivog razvoja, odnosno utjecaj poslovanja tvornice na okoliš ali i na percepciju različitih aktera i dionika o potencijalnim utjecajima tvornice. Zaključna konstatacija rezultata empirijskog istraživanja jest da je tvornica svojim dosadašnjim poslovanjem stvorila pozitivnu sliku o svom djelovanju u okvirima lokalne zajednice, ali i šire, zbog ukupnog poticajnog i odgovornog odnosa prema sredini, poštivanja propisa poslovanja te implementacije načela društveno odgovornog poslovanja. Polazne hipoteze ovog rada koje će u nastavku rada biti preciznije objašnjene su potvrđene što tvornici može omogućiti dugoročnije planiranje, usavršavanje tehnologije te poboljšavanje i modernizaciju pogona te ekološki još osvješteniji odnos prema okolišu.
|Sažetak (engleski)|| |
The challenges of sustainability are examined in this paper from a spatial perspective that differs from the classical division of urban and rural, as part of the broader approach taking into account spatial context of the urban area, specifically the urban agglomeration of Zagreb. This approach has us to develop enabled broader insights into the relationships among the economic, ecological, cultural and political aspects of urban sustainability of Zagreb region, without losing direct ties with the theoretical approaches to sustainability and analysis of current practices. Through the analysis of social effects of one factory on local community, the examined case shows positive social changes and development potential that sustainable and socially responsibility can have on the development of towns and wider urban areas. The fundamental objective of this dissertation was to examine all the ways in which an individual development entity, in this case a cardboard factory, influenced the socioeconomic development of the town of Zabok over a given time period (2003-2019), and the changes that occurred in the microarea, i.e. Zabok city, due to the existence and operations of the factory. The construction of the factory and its start of operations in 2003 was the starting point of this analysis which was to determine positive and negative changes on different aspects of development of the town of Zabok and its surrounding through the years of operation of the factory. Based on the listed objective, this research aims to determine the impacts of the factory on the town of Zabok. The presumption is that the influences will primarily be positive for several reasons, as laid down in three hypotheses:
1. Stimulating production in the factory has a positive impact on the socioeconomic development of the town and the local community.
2. In its operations to date (since 2003), the factory has attained a positive reputation in the narrow and wider surroundings, primarily within the framework of the local community but also beyond, due to the stimulatory and responsible approach towards the town, abiding by all business regulations and due to the ecological characteristics of this area.
3. Implementing the principles of corporate social responsibility in the regular factory operations has led to conservation and improvement of the environment in the town.
The social effect on development of the town was examined through the different aspects of operations of the cardboard factory in Zabok on the surrounding environment. Based on the theoretical framework, several indicators (objective and subjective) were selected to examine the social and ecological paradigms, particularly the contemporary paradigm of development that considers the environment as a fundamental resource, and where the concept of sustainable development is contrary to industrial development, thereby contributing to the establishment of broad ecologically friendly development. The desk research method was used, based on the analysis of relevant literature and documentation, through the following available secondary data, such as theoretical and research studies by homebound and international authors in relevant fields, statistical and historical archives of the town, regional development plans, data collected in the local self-government offices, and in the factory that is the subject of this study, relevant legal regulations, and an analysis of the content of the weekly newspaper Zagorski list in the period from 2003 to 2018, in order to obtain insight into the content published concerning the assessment of operations of the factory on its local environment. A qualitative empirical study was also conducted to collect the opinions and statements of various stakeholders, using the deep or semi-structured interview technique. A total of 21 interviews were performed with stakeholders from five different groups assuming that they have different opinions on the types and intensity of influence of the factory on the town environment. The five groups were: representatives of the Town of Zabok; residents living in close proximity to the factory; residents living further away from the factory or in the outskirts of the Town of Zabok; representatives of the Management board of the Dunapack factory; and representatives of civil society associations dealing with environmental protection. The research results indicated the ways in which the factory has applied the principles of sustainable development in its operations. Considering the production activities of the factory, this dissertation placed the greatest emphasis on the analysis of the environmental elements of sustainable development, i.e. the impacts of the factory's operations on the environment. The conclusions of the results of the empirical study were that from the start of production, the factory positively affected the socioeconomic development of the town and local community, and that the factory has created a positive image of its operations up to date within local community and wider, due to the overall stimulatory and responsible approach taken towards the town, abiding by regulations on operations, and the implementation of the principles of corporate social responsibility. This confirmed the set hypotheses of this research. The issue that was the subject of study of this doctoral dissertation serves as the basis for similar analyses and research in other towns. It is clear that this topic demands an interdisciplinary approach, including numerous aspects and an analysis of the potential impacts of development potential in urban areas. Due to the interdisciplinary approach, the concept of sustainable development can be considered most relevant for future research. Addressing the concept of sustainable development implies a multidisciplinary approach encompassing a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines, from the technical and social sciences, to the humanities. For example, sociology, as a synthetic science, contributes to other social disciplines within which certain elements of sustainable development are studied and critically evaluated, such as urban sociology, sociology of tourism, social ecology and sociology of risk. This dissertation examines the position of a modern factory within the framework of a transitional company. It was established that the factory has been accepted within the community, that it operates in cohabitation with the local population, and that there have been no “outbreaks” in its regular operations over the past 16 years. The conditions in which this cohabitation of technology and local life is possible are based on several key elements: 1. The factory is an entity that provides possible employment. 2. The factory has the capacity to be successful. 3. The factory has a positive impact on the development of the local community. 4. Over the year, the factory has built friendly relations with the town, and positively influenced its development. 5. There is potential for the future development of the factory in Zabok, since its production is based on the concept of sustainable development. 6. There is potential for the future development of the factory, particularly if it abides by the principles of rational operations based on a clear mission to support the town’s development and supports a range of cultural and other events. In addition to creating a positive atmosphere in the local community and in the town, another key requirement for the positive success of the factory is the need to develop a legal framework in which the compensation to the local community is clearly outlined, not only through incidental and non-systemic situations. 7. In the near future, to ensure the continuation of the friendly relations between the factory and the community, it is necessary to base this relationship on the principles of corporate social responsibility and other rules of conduct, which should be increasingly based on systemically planned rules of conduct. Finally, the new knowledge acquired, in combination with the existing knowledge, will enrich and direct future research. This will improve the sociological aspect of social transformation, laying the foundations for strong development of socially responsible actions in the integration of foreign companies in the daily life of the local community.