|Abstract (english)|| |
Conservi were fellow-slaves who served the same master in Roman Republic and Roman Empire. Subject of this thesis was to find and describe the relations and attributes in which fellow-slaves appear in Roman Dalmatia. There are 39 epigraphic inscriptions in latin that mention fellow-slaves in Dalmatia. All of them are written on funerary monuments. Two of them are dated in 1st cenutry AD, 3 are dated from 151.-200., 3 from 171.-250., 24 from 151.-300., 2 from 171.-300., 4 from 201.-300., i 1 od 51.-300 AD. They are dated by standard formulas or expressions used in certain times. The inscriptions mention 83 persons, of which 52 are men and 21 are women. The most common relation determined in these inscriptions is informal marriage between the fellow-slaves (contubernium). It is mentioned five times (no. 11, 12, 16, 23, 29), with the same number of possibilities for the same relation (no. 3, 5, 10, 20, 38). They are assumed by the analog examples of certain words (carissima, infelicissima, incomparabilis) used in the same context or by the common offsprings mentioned in the inscription (no. 5, 10). Some fellow-slaves were related, but in these cases they only mention the family relation, for example soror (no. 2) or filius (no. 5). These examples serve as proof for the primar identities of fellow-slaves.Fellow-slaves were sometimes freed by their master, taking the status of freedmen or freedwomen. There are seven cases in which conservi in Dalmatia took the role of freedmen/freedwomen (no. 9, 15, 21, 24, 26, 34, 39). After taking the rights and obligatinos of the status, freedmen would also take the name of their former master. There are four cases where former fellow-slaves showed their nomen and cognomen on the inscription, while in one case a full name (praenomen, nomen and cognomen) is visible. In all cases, except for one (no. 34), fellow-slaves dedicated the monument for the freedmen, their former conservus. Other informations were written: age at the time of death and the time of common dwelling. More then a half of inscriptions give us the information of the age at the time of death. Some slaves died in their 20s (no. 2, 16, 17, 31, 35, 37) and four of them were women, calling for a suspicion on the problems during the birth. Fewer slaves died in their 30s (no. 5, 12, 19, 22, 28) and most of them lived until their 40s (3, 8, 20, 23, 26, 32, 34, 36). The average age was 31. Four inscriptions mention the time of common dwelling (no. 3, 10, 12, 38), the numbers varying between 7-14. Most of these inscription also carry the infromation of marriage, so we think that the close relationships between the fellow-slaves are connected with the writing of deceased's age and the time of common dwelling.