S obzirom da u Bosni i Hercegovini ne postoji sustavan pregled onoga što se, tijekom stoljećā, o drami (dramskome tekstu ili izvedbenosti) pisalo, istraživalo i zaključivalo, ovim se radom pokušava stvoriti jasnija slika sveukupnosti dramskoga iskustva spomenutoga područja: postavlja se i opisuje pregled svih bitnih elemenata (časopisa, festivala, teatarskih ustanova, publikacija, znanstvenika, kritičara) koji su obilježili određena razdoblja bosanskohercegovačke kulturne povijesti. Povezujući osobitosti srednjovjekovnoga razdoblja, a osobito razdoblja nakon Drugoga svjetskog rata sa suvremenošću, u radu se želi dokazati i istaknuti kontinuitet dramskoga iskustva od XIII. stoljeća pa naovamo, uputiti na osobitosti određenih faza, ukazati na razvojnu liniju bosanskohercegovačke teatrološke – znanstvene i kritičke – misli, te procijeniti kakav je utjecaj iskustva prošlosti na suvremeno stanje u tome smislu. Pokazalo se da se u razdoblju nakon Drugoga svjetskog rata teatar razumijeva ponajprije na razini makroznaka – prenositelja ideološke poruke, a kasnije se javlja potreba za autonomizacijom teatarske umjetnosti. Utvrđuje se da istraživanje i razumijevanje ranijih teatroloških specifičnosti i pojavnosti može biti itekako korisno za objektivizaciju, racionalizaciju i rješavanje određenih problema uočenih u recentnijem bosanskohercegovačkome dramskom iskustvu. Zbog specifičnosti materijala (uglavnom periodičke i monografske građe) u radu su kombinirane različite metode: metoda klasifikacije, induktivna i dijalektička metoda, te deskriptivna i eksplikativna analiza.
|Sažetak (engleski)|| |
Considering the fact that there is no systematic overview of what has been written, researched or induced about drama (dramatic text or performance) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, throughout centuries, this paper aims to create clearer image of totality of dramatic experience in the mentioned area: all important elements of different periods of Bosnian-Herzegovinian cultural history (journals, festivals, theatre institutions, publications, scientists, critics) are set and described. By connecting characteristics of Mediaeval period, especially period after World War II, with contemporary period, the paper aims to prove and emphasize continuity of dramatic experience, from XIIIth century to modern period, refer to specific characterists of different phases, show the developing line of Bosnian-Herzegovinian theatrological – scientific and critic – notions and to estimate how experience of the past affects contemporary period in that sense. It has been shown that, in the post-War period, theatre is understood as mean of ideological transmission, while later more intensive need for theatre independency is noticed. It is noted that researching and understanding of earlier theatrological specificities can be very useful for objectivization, rationalization and solution of problems typical for recent Bosnian-Herzegovinian dramatic experience. Because very specific material has been used (periodic and monographic data), different methods were combined in the paper: classification method, inductive and dialectic method, descriptive and explicative analysis. What Bosnian-Herzegovinian theatrology was in lack of (according to theatre historicist Josip Lesic) is attempt of synthesized view of specific issue or problem: in other words, by focusing on one element only (for example, dramatic texts, performance or critics) no answers can be found or no dillemas can be solved in terms of some specific problems noted in interrelations of these elements. If only history of dramatic texts is isolated in a research, it can be concluded that Bosnia and Herzegovina had many authors and genres in that sense, while focusing only on performance – contradictory conclusion can be made, considering the fact that mainly foreign authors were present on Bosnian-Herzegovinian stage. This paper aims to connect all important elements together, with regards to social and political condition of different periods, so that clearer image of relations and challenges of theatre arts in general can be detected. This was done by isolating some extremely indicative examples (case of Kulenovic's Djelidba, Muradbegovic's Majka, Pavlovic's Pozorisne kronike), which were used to carry out general conclusions about theatrological motions and interdependence. First part of the paper shows that Bosnian-Herzegovinian theatrological experience has been continuously present, since Medieval times (despite of opposite opinion of many historians), if the term „theatrology“ is understood as „totality.“ This is also important when referring to periods of Ottoman occupation, concerning the fact that different historians claim that „theatre did not exist during that time.“ A special emhpasis is given to Austro-Hungarian period, by noting that first dramatic text, first chamber stage, even first attempt of theatrical experiment derive from it. Analysis of period 1945 – 1970 shows that theatre was then understood as mean of transmitting ideological message, where all alements of one theatre act were controlled by that kind of preconceptions. Is it, however, noted that the sixties show more intense need for theatre independence, despite of the „theatre crisis“ mentioned in many theatrological texts of that time. The seventies bring new artistic challenges: theatre is seen as complex and independent art, which differentiates this period from the previous one. By analyzing extent and content of theatrological discussions, it can be concluded that in the seventies and the eighties theatre is aimed to be understood outside political, social, administrative and ideological impositions. It has been also proven that contemporary theatrological problems are just products/extents of the mentioned continuity, but much more time is needed to view and rationalize those problems objectively. However, as all the examples in the paper show, experience of the past can be extremely helpful in that process.