|Abstract (croatian)|| |
U radu se na temelju neobjavljenih arhivskih izvora, onovremene periodike te primarne i sekundarne literature istražuje širi kontekst odlaska Ante Pavelića iz Kraljevine Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca u siječnju 1929. godine. Rasvjetljava se unutarnjopolitičko i vanjskopolitičko djelovanje najrelevantnijih aktera hrvatske politike s obzirom na beogradski režim u periodu od atentata na Stjepana Radića do proglašenja Šestosiječanjske diktature, kao i djelovanje relevantnih vanjskopolitičkih faktora koji su tada utjecali na unutarnjopolitičko stanje Kraljevine SHS, s kojima je Pavelić bio u kontaktu i koji će biti presudni u kasnijem razvitku njegova ustaškog pokreta. U takvu kontekstu autor ocrtava različite pravce na sve heterogenijoj političkoj sceni u Hrvatskoj unutar Kraljevine SHS. Time se pozicioniraju Pavelićeve političke koncepcije prema koncepcijama ostalih predstavnika relevantnijih pravaca hrvatske politike u trenutku njegova emigriranja, što će biti jedan od odlučujućih čimbenika i u njihovu budućem međusobnom odnosu.
|Abstract (english)|| |
The article, by constellation research, and on the basis of numerous unpublished but also published sources and literature, sheds light on the context of the departure of a prominent member of the Croatian Party of Rights and the future head of the Ustasha Independent State of Croatia, Ante Pavelic, from the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes / Yugoslavia in January 1929. This context is an essential indicator of the mutual relationships between various representatives of significant directions in Croatian politics at the crucial moments of Croatian history after the establishment of the 6th January Dictatorship by King Aleksandar Karađorđevic. The first section of the article deals with the internal political situation in Croatia in the period from the assassination of Stjepan Radic recognized as the political leader of the Croatian people in the National Assembly in Belgrade, to the diplomatic mission of the prominent Croatian politician Ante Trumbić abroad. This part of the paper emphasizes differences in political conceptions between prominent representatives of the Prečani opposition to the Belgrade regime, led by the Peasant Democratic Coalition, and few but influential Croatian politicians who supported the politics of the Belgrade regime. The article then deals with shedding light on the signs of a severe state crisis from the autumn of 1928 onwards. They were initially manifested in the conflicting goals of Trumbić’s diplomatic mission in Vienna, Paris and London from October to December, and King Alexandar’s diplomatic mission in Paris in November 1928. The results of the November council elections in Split, which showed a setback for the regime parties, were yet another sign of a state crisis that culminated in particularly violent demonstrations in Zagreb in December 1928. Special attention was then given to the activities of Pavelic’s potential foreign political allies in the fierce fight against the Belgrade regime. One of them was Bulgaria, which impacted the Yugoslav interior conditions through the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (VMRO), and Fascist Italy and Hungary also cooperated. The then connections between Croatian politicians and influential political circles of these countries are presented. These circles actively worked and collaborated on the revision of the Versailles order in Europe, and thus became increasingly hostile to the Kingdom of SCS. The last part of the article describes the measures taken by the Belgrade regime in the preparation and the final declaration of the 6th January Dictatorship and the reactions of politicians to the increasingly heterogeneous Croatian political scene. Along with the existing rift between the Prečani opposition and Croatian politicians who now openly supported the dictatorship, a growing split deepened within the Prečani opposition itself. The legitimate prevalent current, led by the Peasant-Democratic Coalition, wanted to resolve the Croatian issue by relying on the Karađorđević dynasty, from which sincere and fair co-operation was expected. On the other hand, a minor group, to which the Croatian Party of Rights belonged, wanted to resolve the Croatian issue by a violent struggle against the ruling Yugoslav dynasty and Serbian hegemony to create a completely independent Croatia. Pavelić consistently acted within the framework of the second current, and therefore his emigration was not an honourable exile with the aim of heroic struggle for the liberation of a unified Croat people. On the contrary, it became ostracism so that his methods of political struggle would not compromise the Croatian people in the eyes of Western democracies.