Ova disertacija bavi se istraživanjem prehrane neolitičkog stanovništva na području današnje Hrvatske. Također se dotiče i upotrebe keramičkih posuda. Obuhvaća vremenski period čitavog neolitika na području istočne jadranske obale (kultura impreso-keramike, danilska i hvarska kultura) i unutrašnjosti, odnosno istočne Hrvatske (starčevačka, sopotska i vinčanska kultura te eneolitičke lasinjska i kultura Retz-Gajary). Glavna je pretpostavka da se prehrana prapovijesnih ljudi razlikuje u vremenu (tijekom neolitika i eneolitika) i u prostoru (između Dalmacije i istočne Hrvatske) te će se razlike reflektirati i u organskim ostatcima na keramičkim posudama. Ciljevi rada su dobiti nove rezultate analiza organskih ostataka iz keramičkih posuda i kombinirati ih s poznatim podatcima o prehrani (životinjski i biljni ostatci) i znanjima o tipologiji keramičkog materijala da bi se dobila potpunija slika o prehrani neolitičkih zajednica i kad je to moguće upotrebi pojedinih keramičkih oblika. Analizirano je ukupno 180 ulomaka keramičkih posuda (127 iz neolitika i 53 iz eneolitika). Od neolitičkih ulomaka, 55 ih je iz Dalmacije, a 73 iz istočne Hrvatske, svi eneolitički ulomci su iz istočne Hrvatske. Lipidi su iz svih ulomaka ekstrahirani metodom direktne ekstrakcije kiselinom i analizirani plinskom kromatografijom – masenom spektrometrijom, a na 63 odabrana ulomka analizirani su i izotopi 13C na palmitinskoj i stearinskoj kiselini. Očuvanost lipida bolja je u istočnoj Hrvatskoj (60%) nego u Dalmaciji (47,3%), a u Dalmaciji je najviše lipida sačuvano u ranom neolitiku, zatim u srednjem, pa u kasnom, dok u istočnoj Hrvatskoj očuvanost lipida raste od ranoga neolitika prema eneolitiku. Najviše je lipida sačuvano na trbusima i obodima posuda koji su i najbrojniji, ali se ne može primijetiti specijalizacija ili favoriziranje pojedinih oblika posuda za određenu namjenu te su različite vrste životinjskih i biljnih masti zabilježene i na loncima i zdjelama te na drugim oblicima posuda. Tvari otkrivene analizom lipida ponešto se razlikuju u prostoru i vremenu, a reflektiraju i ono što je pronađeno u ostatcima životinjskih kostiju i biljnim ostatcima. Na keramičkim posudama pronađeni su tragovi životinjskih masti (adipoznih masti preživača i nepreživača), mliječnih masti, biljnih ostataka i mogućeg pčelinjeg voska. Razlike u prehrani između Dalmacije i istočne Hrvatske ogledaju se u prevlasti ovce/koze u Dalmaciji i goveda u istočnoj Hrvatskoj i nepostojanju masti nepreživača (svinja) u Dalmaciji, iako su svinje zabilježene u ostatcima faune te većem značenju mlijeka u Dalmaciji gdje je ono pristuno tijekom čitavog neolitika dok je u istočnoj Hrvatskoj, osim na jednom ranoneolitičkom uzorku, prisutno tek u eneolitiku. U Dalmaciji su razlike u vremenu vrlo suptilne i nisu zabilježene u ostatcima lipida, dok su u istočnoj Hrvatskoj vidljivije. Masti nepreživača (svinje) pronađene su samo u kasnom neolitiku i ranom eneolitiku, a mliječne masti pronađene su u eneolitiku te na jednom ulomku iz ranoga neolitika. Razlike u biljnim ostatcima nisu vidljive ni u prostoru ni u vremenu, a divlje životinje i riba nisu zabilježene ni na jednom ulomku keramike, iako su pronađene u ostatcima faune
|Abstract (english)|| |
This dissertation explores the dietary habits of Neolithic populations in modern day Croatia, as well as possible use of ceramic vessels. It covers the entire Neolithic period on the eastern Adriatic coast (impressed ware pottery , Danilo, Hvar cultures) and the continental eastern Croatia (Starčevo, Sopot and Vinča cultures) and part of Eneolithic in eastern Croatia (Lasinja and Retz-Gajary cultures). The main hypothesis is that the diet of prehistoric people varied over time (during the Neolithic and Eneolithic), and space (between Dalmatia and Eastern Croatia), and that the difference will be reflected in organic residues on ceramic vessels. The aim of the research is to obtain new results of the organic residue analysis of pottery and to combine them with published data about prehistoric diets (animal and plant remains) and the ceramic typology in order to access a more complete picture of the diet of Neolithic communities and, where possible, use of certain ceramic shape. We also tried to determine to what extent the organic residues were preserved, to identify them and to establish whether milk and dairy products were used. In total, 180 pottery shards were analysed. 127 of them were from the Neolithic and 53 from the Eneolithic. 55 Neolithic shards are from Dalmatia and 73 from Eastern Croatia, while all the Eneolithic shards are from Eastern Croatia. 26 shards were from the time of impressoceramic culture (10 from Pokrovnik, 10 from Konjevrate, 6 from Vela spila), 6 from the time of Danilo culture (Vela Spila) and 23 from the time of Hvar culture (11 from Čista Mala - Velištak, 12 from Vela Spila). 20 shards are from the time of Starčevo culture (9 from Galovo, 11 from Vinkovci - tel Tržnica), 20 shards from the time of Sopot culture (10 from Sopot, 10 from Slavča) and 32 shards of Vinča culture from Bapka-Gradac. 5 Eneolithic shards belong to the Lasinja culture from Čepinski Martinci, and to 48 to Retz-Gajary culture (28 from Čeminac-Vakanjac, 20 from Ivandvor). All the lipids were extracted using direct acid extraction (Correa-Ascencio and Evershed 2014) and analysed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. 63 selected samples were additionally analysed by GC-C-IRMS (analysis of 13C isotope on palmitic and stearic acids) to determine the origin of the organic residue. The results of the isotope analysis were compared with published data for the neighbouring areas and combined with the results of the analysis of modern fats from Croatia. The preservation of lipids is better in Eastern Croatia (60%) than in Dalmatia (47.3%), which was expected given the fact that many studies have shown that lipid preservation in the eastern Mediterranean is generally low and is increasing to the North and the West, as well as towards Central Europe where it is generally over 50% (e.g. Debono Spiteri 2012; Ethier et al. 2017). The preservation of lipids by time period shows the opposite picture in Dalmatia and Eastern Croatia. In Dalmatia the greatest amount of lipids is preserved in the early Neolithic, then in the Middle and late Neolithic lipids are least well preserved. While in Eastern Croatia, the amount of preserved lipids is increasing from the early Neolithic to the Eneolithic. Most lipids are preserved in the rims and bodies of vessels which are also the most numerous vessel parts analysed. In the Early Neolithic the most abundant pottery types are various shapes of hemispherical bowls which also contain different kinds of lipids (animal, diary and plant fats). At the time of the late Neolithic various bowls, pots, and other types of vessels - strainers and pans) were used for the preparation, storage and consumption of meat as well as other foods (plants and possibly honey) and no specialization could be observed for the use of certain forms. The same is true for Eneolithic, there is no specialization in use or favouring certain pottery types for a particular purpose and different types of animal and vegetable fats were found in all kinds of vessels. Interestingly, remains of dairy fats were also found in a jug and a cup that are normally associated with liquid manipulation, while possible beeswax was found in a strainer. Substances discovered by lipid analysis differ somewhat in space and time and reflect what has been found in animal and plant remains. The diet of prehistoric peoples in the present-day Croatia consisted mainly of foods that they raised and grew themselves but they were sometimes supplemented by hunting and gathering. It included meat of different animals (mostly sheep/goats, cattle and pigs depending on the area and period), grains, legumes, fruit, leafy vegetables and possibly honey and fish. Traces of these foods were found in the remains of fauna, carbonated plant remains and organic residues absorbed in pottery vessels. The organic residues include remains of milk (and/or other dairy products), leafy vegetables and possible beeswax (honey). Mixing residues from different sources in the same containers gives us the insight into what could have been prepared and eaten together, or at least the fact that some pots were used several times to cook or store a variety of different foods. Differences in diet between Dalmatia and Eastern Croatia are mainly reflected in the prevalence of sheep/goats in Dalmatia and cattle in eastern Croatia and the absence of non-ruminant fats on pottery vessels in Dalmatia, although pigs are recorded in faunal remains, and the use of milk and dairy which was more prevalent in the Neolithic of Dalmatia, while in Eastern Croatia it becomes more widespread in the Eneolithic times. In Dalmatia, the differences in time are very subtle and are not recorded in lipid residues, while in eastern Croatia they are more visible. Non-ruminant fats (pigs) were found only in the late Neolithic and early Eneolithic periods, indicating that they were of greater importance at those times but they were present in faunal remains in other time periods. Dairy fats were found only in the Eneolithic and probably on a shard from the Early Neolithic but this does not prove that they were not used in the meantime. Differences in plant residues are not visible in neither space nor time, and wild animals or fish (marine or freshwater) have not been recorded in any pottery samples.