Lasinjska se kultura u srednjem eneolitiku rasprostirala na širokom prostoru između Alpa i Dunava, a u njezinom su izričaju vidljive manje lokalne razlike. Proučavanjem dostupnog materijala i podataka s istraživanja pokušalo se dati odgovor na pitanje njezina porijekla i geneze te odnosa s kulturom Retz-Gajary. Kartirana su nalazišta u središnjoj i gorskoj Hrvatskoj te su za svako od njih dani podaci o arheološkim istraživanjima i keramografiji. U analizu je ušlo ukupno 86 nalazišta, izdvojenih na temelju pregledanog materijala iz dvanaest muzeja te rezultata istraživanja donesenih u objavama ili dostupnim izvještajima. Nabrojana su i nalazišta za koja se navodi da pripadaju lasinjskoj kulturi, ali za što se nije našlo dokaza. Napravljena je i detaljna tipologija oblika i ukrasa. Potom su uspoređeni svi dobiveni podaci, zajedno s dostupnim radiokarbonskim datumima, ne bi li se uočile kronološke i geografske razlike unutar njezina rasprostiranja. Analizirajući keramiku predmetnog područja paralele su se tražile kako u kronološkom, tako i u geografskom smislu. U tu je svrhu svako nalazište analizirano zasebno, a potom je sagledano iz šireg aspekta lasinjske i susjednih joj kultura. Istraživanja su pokazala kako je pri oblikovanju lasinjske kulture veoma jaku komponentu imala lenđelska, a potom i sopotska kultura iz kojih se i razvila. Nije bilo moguće odrediti faze unutar lasinjske kulture, a većina se tipova posuda i ukrasa javlja tijekom cijelog njezinog trajanja, od sredine 44. do sredine 40. st. pr. Kr. Iz lasinjske izrasta kultura Retz-Gajary koja unosi novi keramografski izričaj na ove prostore. U geografskom smislu razlike su uočene između središnje i gorske Hrvatske, pri čemu sjeverna nalazišta naginju onima u Slavoniji, Mađarskoj i sjeveroistočnoj Sloveniji, dok sličnosti s nalazištima u gorskoj Hrvatskoj možemo tražiti u sjeverozapadnoj Bosni, Beloj krajini i Austriji. Rad je upotpunjen prilozima koji sadrže table nacrtanih keramičkih nalaza, fotografije nalaza i objekata lasinjske kulture, karte rasprostranjenosti te tablične prikaze zastupljenosti pojedinih tipova posuda, dijelova posuda i ukrasa na nalazištima lasinjske kulture u središnjoj i gorskoj Hrvatskoj.
1. INTRODUCTION Although Lasinja Culture is quite well known with a large number of sites, there are still some issues regarding its terminology and inner periodization. In that regard, an attempt was made to answer some chronological questions. Sites in focus (86 of them) are situated in Central and Mountainous Croatia and the finds are being kept in 12 museums.
2. LASINJA CULTURE In the period of the Middle Copper Age (4350 - 3950 BC) Lasinja culture was present in Central and Mountainous Croatia, making it a part of a cultural complex that included eastern Croatia, western Vojvodina (?), northern Bosnia, continental Slovenia, eastern Austria, and western Hungary. Since Lasinja culture occupied a relatively large area, minor differences can be observed in the way pottery was made and decorated. In recent times it is considered that this is due to different cultures preceding Lasinja in different regions. Lasinja culture was preceded by the late Lengyel and late Sopot cultures, while RetzGajary culture is considered to be its successor. According to S. Dimitrijević Lasinja culture can be divided into three phases.
3. TYPOLOGY OF LASINJA CULTURE POTTERY FROM CENTRAL AND MOUNTAINOUS CROATIA While constructing typology main parameters taken into consideration were the ratio of the width and height of the vessel, the size of the vessel and the presence of the neck or the handle. Nine main pottery forms were recognized: pots (L), jugs (V), bowls (Z), beakers (Š), cups (Č), small bottles (B), lids (P), strainers (C) and spoons (Ž) with several sub-types for each one of them. A total of 127 subtypes were recognized, amongst which bowls are represented with 49 different sub-types. Special forms, represented with 31 different sub-types, include vessels of unusual shape (PN), seals (P) and statuettes (S). Parts of vessels such as pedestals (N), handles (R) and spouts (I) were also categorized. Typology of plastic applications (A) and grips (D), which can also be decorated (AO, DO, AU) has been made, as well as for motives made by incision (U), imprint (O) or the combination of the two techniques (UO). A total of 162 different motives were identified.
4. REGISTER OF LASINJA CULTURE SITES IN CENTRAL AND MOUNTAINOUS CROATIA According to the published research and information gathered from museums and archaeologists leading the excavations, a total of 86 sites were part of the research in question. Lasinja pottery was collected during archaeological excavations from pits or undisturbed layers at 38 of them. At all the other sites it was gathered from disturbed layers. For every site detailed information is given regarding its position, archaeological investigations, features, and context of finds, as well as the detailed description of pottery finds belonging to Lasinja culture.
5. ANALYSIS OF LASINJA CULTURE POTTERY FINDS FROM CENTRAL AND MOUNTAINOUS CROATIA A detailed analysis of pottery types is presented, including a large number of analogies from other sites of Lasinja culture, as well as their neighboring and preceding cultures, such as Sopot, Lengyel, Vinča, Ludanice, Jordanów, Bodrogkeresztúr and Bubanj-SălcuţaKrivodol. The majority of different types could be traced back to Lengyel and Sopot culture, while the origin for some of them could be found in the Vinča culture. Many types of vessels and decorations can be found in Lasinja and surrounding cultures such as Ludanice, Jordanów, Bodrogkeresztúr, and Bubanj-Sălcuţa-Krivodol.
6. REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LASINJA CULTURE Characteristics of Lasinja culture pottery were summarized regarding different microregions in Central and Mountainous Croatia as well as other parts of its territory such as nowadays Slavonia, Slovenia, Hungarian Transdanubia, Austria, and Bosnia. It has been noted that the differences in pottery forms and decorations could be regional and not chronological. Most of the types coming from AMS radiocarbon dated pits could be set in the time-frame shorter than 4350-3950 cal BC, that is the whole period of Lasinja culture. The area around Varaždin and Čakovec show many similarities in pottery assemblages especially regarding the number of decorated shards. Although some types of vessels could be found in the aforementioned micro-region, the area around Križevci and Koprivnica is known for the abundance of different ornaments used. Sites south of the Kupa river could be considered as part of one regional type of Lasinja culture with pottery that shows a strong connection to the previous Lengyel culture. Many of the sites were also occupied by both Lengyel and Lasinja culture and are vertically stratified, differing from the sites north of the Kupa river which if at all, are horizontally stratified.
7. CENTRAL AND MOUNTAINOUS CROATIA IN THE WIDER CONTEXT OF LASINJA CULTURE: AREAL AND CHRONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Lasinja culture finds from central and mountainous Croatia were compared with the ones from neighboring cultures such as Bubanj-Sălcuţa-Krivodol, Bodrogkeresztúr, Ludanice, and Jordanów. The relation between Lasinja culture and proceeding cultures such as Lengyel, Sopot, and Vinča was emphasized. The problem regarding the end of the Lasinja culture and its relation to the RetzGajary culture was explained. As can be seen, new elements appear at several Lasinja culture sites mostly south of the Kupa river, as well as in south-eastern Slovenia and Austria, which cannot be ascribed to Lasinja culture. According to E. Ruttkay they can be ascribed to the Kanzianiberg-Lasinja IIc which in chronological terms corresponds to the Balaton II according to N. Kalicz.
8. CONCLUDING REMARKS As the research has shown, Lasinja culture developed locally from the Lengyel and relating Sopot culture around the middle of the 44th century BC, probably with some cultural influences from the east-southeast. By the beginning of the 4th millennium BC, it began to gradually change, accepting new influences, and turning into the Retz-Gajary culture. Similarities in the way pottery was shaped and decorated are visible geographically and several micro-regions can be recognized. Some types can even be placed in the larger context that exceeds the borders of Lasinja culture. Lasinja pottery is quite uniform in the chronological sense. As far as inner periodization is concerned, one cannot be established based on AMS radiocarbon dates and the pottery typology